Finally, some utterances need to be supplemented to form a correct clause, such as utterances [2] and [6]. Besides, they can also found in the VIP scheme on p. In this dialogue, no information is found that is incongruent with the literal evaluation of the ironic utterance. On the one hand, it is possible to argue that the co-text does not include incongruent information with the literal evaluation of 3. In order to differentiate between types of persuasive texts, the persuasive texts could be divided into two sub-categories:

In other words, it is not the literal or intended meaning of an utterance that determines how this utterance is processed, but rather the degree of salience. In relevance theory, Wilson and Sperber connect irony to the concept of echoing see section 2. In cartoons, visual co-text of course also plays an important role in decoding the irony. Frequency of directly and indirectly relevant ironic utterances in commercial and non- commercial advertisements, columns, cartoons, book and film reviews, and letters to the editor. However, doing something special just for once is favorable as well. At the same time, not every implicit reference to an unfulfilled expectation may be an example of irony. I would like to thank the MT in general and Elly Konijn in particular for the warm welcome and the flexibility to allow me to combine teaching at VU University with the completion of my PhD project.

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A second property of an ironic utterance is that a literal and an intended meaning can be observed. A third property of an ironic utterance is that it involves a shift in evaluative valence between the literal and intended evaluation. However, it has not yet been empirically investigated whether ironic praise is indeed used more often in discourse than ironic blame nor whether genre differences may be found in the use of ironic praise and blame. Preface When you turn towards a typical preface in a dissertation, you usually find words of praise of the PhD candidate for many people who helped him or her in preparing the dissertation.


The cover image is a campaign advertisement used by the Conservative Party in the British General Elections of Advertisement for Elsevier — incongruence echoic use of a previous utterance, between literal evaluation and co-text although it is unclear who used 3. Since irony often involves humor, a number of studies using oral data only considered to include utterances as ironic when they were followed by canned laughter e.

How do features of irony differ across various written genres? It is unclear how these raters identified irony or other types of nonliteral language, which criteria were used to separate literal from nonliteral language or how nonliteral utterances were counted.

Slotzin Duitse Zakelijke Brief

In the literal evaluation of 3. Driver A takes a left turn without signaling. From durriculum data, the scholars conclude that an ironic utterance is always more difficult to comprehend than a literal utterance.

The theory of indirect negation also differs from a Neo- Gricean perspective on two other, important points. Aanhef bij een persoonlijke brief Bij het schrijven van een informele brief bestaat de aanhef uit de volgende voorbeelden.

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Suppose that John has difficulties in mathematics and worries whether he will pass his exams. I never would have experienced into the Ivy Mars without his advice and getting. Hos course, in dealing with natural examples of a particular stylistic phenomenon such as irony — and by engaging in corpus research — a crucial question considers the ways in which important concepts are operationalized and measured.

Therefore, the literal evaluation is incongruent with the context. Therefore, utterance [11] should be interpreted as a rhetorical question; the reader as well as the critic knows the answer.

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Kreuz and Glucksbergp. Decide if the literal evaluation is incongruent with the co- text o In case the utterance is evaluative or has an evaluative connotation, coders determine what the literal evaluation is. This implies that only utterance 2. Explicitly evaluative Implicitly evaluative Total a b Commercial advertisements 40 65 Non-commercial 51 33 84 advertisements Columns 69 38 Cartoons 10 9 19 Book and film reviews 63 35 98 Letters to the editor 27 16 43 Total a,b.


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curriuclum This means that, on average, the opinionative texts contain more ironic utterances than the advertisements. Use and effects in written discourse. These difficult cases were decided on by the author.

No Yes Construct a scale of evaluation about one C Look at the person or object that next clause is targeted Look at the next clause Place the literal and intended evaluation on D the scale; Assign them a different valence Is the intended evaluation relevant to E the co- and context?

This view of irony as a deviation from a personal norm can hoofdlettees be applied to instances in which it may be difficult to determine whether irony has indeed been used, cf.

Wilson and Sperberp.

Ellen Besseling – Micro- and nanoplastic in the aquatic environment – from rivers to whales Ana Causanilles – Wastewater-based epidemiology, an analytical chemical approach for the investigation of human consumption of lifestyle chemicals Andrea Schgijf – Fullerene nanoparticles in soil: In a Neo- Gricean perspective, the literal meaning is rejected in favor of the intended meaning. Imagine that Laurie had not planned to go on a picnic at all.

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At the same time, the shift in valence can be a shift from a literally positive to an intended negative meaning i. On the one hand, the scalar nature of the evaluation scale allows for gradual distinctions between ironic utterances. In the interpretations of utterances 2. In this advertisement, winning the Lotto jackpot is literally portrayed as something negative, because contestants ie run a risk.