The most commonly found lectins are those isolated from Abrus precatroius, Agaricus bisporus, Anguilla anguilla, Arachis hypogaea, Pandeiraea simplicifolia, and Bauhinia purpurea Chowdary, Rao, The nonkeratinized epithelium in the oral cavity, such as the soft palate, the mouth floor, the ventral side of the tongue, and the buccal mucosa, offers a relatively permeable barrier for drug transport. Effect of film hydration on cutaneous adherence in wet environments. All these stimuli are found in the organism, making these polymers of great potential for use in the design of controlled release systems Qiu, Park, Due to their high specificity, antibodies can be a rational choice as polymeric ligand in the development of site-specific mucoadhesives. In the case of lyotropic mesophases, the precursor absorbs water in situ and spontaneously builds the cubic phase Bruschi et al. Preparation of thiomer microparticles and in vitro evaluation of parameters influencing their mucoadhesive properties.
The potential use of tomato lectin for oral drug delivery. The mucous membrane is mounted in a compartment under physiological conditions and the microsphere is positioned directly below the magnetic probe. The evaluation of bioadhesive properties is fundamental to the development of novel bioadhesive delivery systems. Fracture theory This is perhaps the most-used theory in studies on the mechanical measurement of mucoadhesion Mathiowitz Chickering, Lehr, Moreover, such roughness increases the interfacial area available to interactions thereby aiding dissipating energy and can be considered the most important phenomenon of the process Peppas, Sahlin, ; Smart, Nanoscale technology of mucoadhesive interactions. Their buprenorphine patch is capable of delivering the drug for a period up to 12 h, with good patient comfort reported.
Support Center Support Center. Nevertheless, three main testing modes are recognized — tensile test, shear strength, and peel strength. Microspheres were fabricated by a spray-drying method using a mixture of polymers, such as pectin, polycarbophil, and HPMC at different ratios.
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems
Besides AFM, there are other techniques using photographic images, such as fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy CSLM. Approximately 3 mL of mucus with a neutral pH spread over the surface. Nasal delivery of protein and peptide therapeutics can be compromised mmucoadhesive the brief residence time at this mucosal surface.
Bioadhesive polymers possess numerous hydrophilic functional groups, such as hydroxyl and carboxyl. First generation mucoadhesive materials These materials are natural or synthetic hydrophilic molecules containing numerous organic functions that generate hydrogen bonds such as carboxyl, hydroxyl thesix amino groups, which do not adhere specifically onto several surfaces.
It was found that when the GRFs were dried and immersed in deilvery juice, they swelled rapidly and released their drug payload in a zero-order fashion for a period of 24 h.
Sulphadicramide, multiple polymers[ 65 ]. To achieve a high degree of swelling, a lightly cross-linked polymer is favored.
felivery This strategy can be useful for instance, in drugs targeting tumor tissues Chowdary, Rao, The percent adhesion rate of the release system onto the sac is determined by subtracting the residual mass from the initial mass Santos et al. Rheological methods This category of methods are all carried out in vitro and were first proposed by Hassan and Gallowho used viscosimetric assays to macroscopically analyze the formulation-mucin interaction. If adhesive attachment is delkvery a mucus coat, the phenomenon is referred to as mucoadhesion.
This result seems to be of interest only for more or less liquid mucoadhesive formulations.
The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric vrug. After the experiment, the magnetic current is converted into force and the computer calculates the parameters of adhesion. SDS, multiple polymers[ 72 ].
A simple rheological method for the in vitro assessment of mucin-polymer bioadhesive bond strength. The wetting theory is perhaps the oldest established theory of adhesion.
In order for diffusion to occur, it is important that the components involved have good mutual muccoadhesive, that is, both the bioadhesive and the mucus have similar chemical structures. Design, testing and analysis.
Ex vivo evaluation of bioadhesive films for buccal delivery of fentanyl. Nasal mucoadhesive drug delivery: Studies have demonstrated that chitosan can promote the absorption of hydrophilic molecules by the structural reorganization of the proteins associated to the intercellular junctions Bravo-Osuna et al.
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems
In order to circumvent the administration problems, a less viscous mesophase, e. Another test using the same principle, the Biacore test, was applied for the analysis of mucoadhesion by Takeuchi et al. The number of methodologies applied to analyze mucoadhesion is constantly growing, although the use of different methods may sometimes lead to incoherence among results due to the heterogeneity of parameters and conditions used Sigurdsso, Loftsson, Lehr, For linear polymers, mucoadhesion increases with molecular weight, but the same relationship does not hold for non-linear polymers.
Table 3 Different types of mucoadhesive dosage forms. This category of methods are all carried out in vitro and were first proposed by Hassan and Gallowho used viscosimetric assays to macroscopically analyze the formulation-mucin interaction. The reproducibility of rheological measures is reasonably good, since the measures are taken on already balanced mixtures; composition, pH, and temperature can be carefully controlled and therefore fewer repetitions are necessary to obtain statistically significant data.
Nasal Ointment Abvailable from: Reinhart and Peppas[ 12 ] reported that the diffusion coefficient depended on the molecular weight of the polymer strand and that it decreased with increasing cross-linking density.
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems Review 43, 4, Pharm Chem.