These are obvious counter narratives—the main story and characters remain the same. There were women down there. D scholar at my Centre, teaching in a DU college, remarked that it was so delightful to have a paper that actually allowed you to look at culture beyond the confines of the mainstream with its emphasis on normative lenses. One key point is that the original Buddhist Ramayana that Ramanujam gloats about part of Dasharatha Jataka is just about two pages long. OUP India has clearly not done this.

It was so salty. Still, overcoming his despair after a last unsuccessful attempt at peace, he faces his destined enemy in battle with his most powerful magic weapons. When it touched the earth, it made a hole in the ground and disappeared into it. Go quickly from here. You sent her to the jungle.

According to Santosh Desai, nothing else of Hindu origin has affected the tone of Thai life more than the Rama story Desai Through the centuries, some of these languages have hosted more than one telling of the Rama story. I consider it essential reading for anyone who wants to know about the complex textual history of the Ramayana. He is talking to some people. The reunion between Rama and Sita is also different. The 16 Dec Massacre in a Peshawar school – statements from human rights groups, media commentary and editorials Fast Track to Troubling Times: It was an all-night performance, and he just couldn’ t keep awake.

Who’s afraid of 300 Ramayanas?

The story of how ridiculous and laughable this theory proved is now largely forgotten. Let me outline a few of the differences we have not yet encountered. It so happened that the poet of greatest merit who did a version of the Ramayana happened to be a Jain by Religion. These are obvious counter narratives—the main story and characters remain the same. They even rationalise the conception of Ravana as the Ten-headed Demon. There are two distinct traditions within the Jaina Ramakathas, and although Ramanujan does not directly refer to this himself, I extend his assertion that there is no one text that can be upheld for even the counter narrative.


Ramayana: An ‘epic’ controversy – BBC News

But the proportions between the three kinds of relations differ vastly between Kampan and Goldman. Their relations to the Rama story as told by Valmiki also vary. The Thais enjoy most the sections about the abduction of Sita and the war. In Valmiki, Indra seduces a willing Ahalya.

Ramayana: An ‘epic’ controversy

Some later extensions like the Adbhuta Ramayana and the Tamil story of Satakantharavana even give Sita a heroic character: On that day, the reciter was enchanting the audience with a description of how Hanuman the monkey had lo leap across the ocean to take Rama’s signet ring to Sita. As such, this is a perfectly orthodox Mimamsa position- though it somewhat chauvinistically ramamujans Vedantic ‘Viveka’ to Indians only.

So he went in the evening and sat at the back.

I must be punished. Thirdly, it must be appreciated that the audience, even at that time, was diverse with different world views famayanas different environmental and cultural attributes.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

The queen of that kingdom is in love with him and sends sk her messenger; he uses her knowledge of the fort to breach it and defeat the king. In the light of these historical facts, who do we credit for providing the inspiration to Valmiki?


Another point of difference among Ramayanas is the intensity of focus on a major character. That may be too extreme a way of putting it. For instance, in Sanskrit and in the other Indian languages, there are two endings esay the story.

The bhakti ideology has been seen as a reaction to brahmanical orthodoxy, but as many have pointed out, at the moment of the institutionalisation of the bhakti tradition, the dissenting element became the orthodoxy.

Ramanujan’s Three Hundred Ramayanas: Transmission, Interpretation And () – Mainstream Weekly

This valuable essay is being made available here at sacw. After a ritual puja and prayers to Siva, Ravula is ready to share the mango. If one reads the work of scholars like G.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

So Ravana or Ravula goes to the forest, performs all sorts of self-mortifications like rolling on the ground till blood runs from his back, and meets a jogi, or holy mendicant, who is none other than Siva. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

If this is the case, then Hindu fundamentalist groups like the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad ABVP should have been rabble-rousing against these centuries-old texts instead of an academic essay that simply and accurately describes them. Therefore, if his Ramayana becomes the primary source for Valmiki, then it stands to reason that Kalidasa came much earlier than Valmiki. They have monkeys as emblems on their flags: