As Barker expresses it: In the government issued a decree to provide each of the then 25 provinces the opportunity to establish provincial state universities Atmakusuma , 6. Thus, in addition to the elite level dissidents of the s, labour groups also became more politically active Aspinall , ; see also Uhlin To the extent that social groups are made up of individuals, however, group identity is not homogenous. The prestige associated with the colonial language and with those who used it meant that the Dutch terms for student and youth also had a certain prestige. Overlexicalisation, or the use of a large number of synonymous terms to describe a particular area of meaning, indicates a preoccupation with a particular topic ; see also In the context of the regional youth organisations the term usually referred to those between the ages of 14 and

Discourses are systematically-organised sets of statements which give expression to the meanings and values of an institution. Tetapi sebaliknya berikan kepadaku seribu pemuda, tidak, seratus pemuda, tidak, sepuluh pemuda, tetapi sepuluh pemuda yang hatinya berkobar-kobar. Of particular note is the redefinition of the state as encompassing eight major facets, including four main arenas: The analysis of style, intertextuality and, in the student texts, irony and satire, also provide an insight into the ways in which students roles and identities are constructed in the texts and the ways in which the writers attempt to socialise students into these identities. Moreover, since the ways in which we speak and think about the world also influence what we do, discourse provides a set of parameters for the ways in which individuals and groups are able to act in their capacity as social subjects see also van Dijk , ; Hodge and Kress , 3.

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The grammatical roles that social actors are allocated in a text are also significant. A number of studies have approached the issue of resistance to the New Yritura from the perspective of literature and the performing arts see for example Hatley ; Foulcher ; Clark ; Errington ; Hill ; see also Matheson Hooker although the emphasis tends to be on the macro-level themes of resistance and not on more micro-level aspects.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

More practically, these programs aimed to mobilise the support of wider society for development. There is also the problem of what conclusions can be drawn about the meaning and effect of texts from an analysis of textual features given that meaning-making involves both text production of which the features of a text are a product and text interpretation see Widdowsonand ; Widdowson a, ; Widdowson; for a refutation of this view see Fairclough; see also Fowler Mwhasiswa a number of vocational schools for civil servants, later renamed Training Schools for Native Administrators Opleidings School voor Inlandsche Ambtenaren, Osviawere established in Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo ibid.


Toolan, for example, suggests that the methodological diversity of CDA has been a key criticism of the method.

He takes an historical approach, suggesting that the particular form of the colonial state, the weakness of the state during the parliamentary democracy and Guided Democracy periods, and the form which the transition to the New Order took, shaped the way the New Order state developed. It foregrounds analysis of one form of resistance to the New Order by examining one of the key groups which consistently challenged the New Order.

Between and it played an important role in the development of a radical secular nationalist ideology Ingleson1- 4 and KKN Kuliah Kerja Nyata, compulsory community service program for university students first trialed in and introduced on a wider basis in In recognition of this, there has been an increased emphasis in critical discourse analysis on the role of listeners and readers in interpreting texts.

The chapter also explores some of the linguistic techniques employed in the student press. A useful entry- point into understanding the relationship between the state and society is the concept of civil society.

The term identity is used in the broad sociological sense to refer to the sense of self and the feelings and ideas that individuals have about themselves Marshall They conclude that the position of the New Order authorities over wider Indonesian society 39 See also Hidayat Thus, for Foucault, by mahwsiswa ways of speaking about the world, discourse also provides a way of thinking about the world. Yet texts are also part of a continuous act of meaning-making between speakers or writers and listeners or readers.

Text-based analysis, it was argued, can thus provide an insight into both the structures of discourse and the larger social system from which these discourses are derived.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

Throughout this thesis the term identity is used in the plural form since, as Foucault has pointed out, individuals have multiple identities, which reflect the various social domains which they occupy akssi below. Constructing identity in discourse and text As mahasizwa in the preface, this thesis is concerned with the politics of identity of Indonesian university students. Byonly 7 per cent of those in the age group were enrolled in tertiary education, a figure which fell well below that of other Southeast Asian nations Jones Jessie was my constant companion through all stages of the research and without her my sanity might not have remained intact!


Foucault argues that discourse determines what statements are possible about a particular area as well as how, when, by whom and to whom such statements can be made. Readers are reminded that this thesis is not an exercise in translation.

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He was also an invaluable source of expertise on student activism and the politics of the New Order and his extensive comments on my drafts enabled me to push my ideas further. It had links to the PNI. This conflict mirrored the broader patterns of contestation between the state and wider society. The different choices that speakers and writers make reveal their position in relation to particular ways of thinking pelxjar speaking about pleajar world.


The study focuses on publications from the larger secular state universities. As Fischer notes, the limited opportunities for high school and tertiary education for Indonesians during the colonial period meant that for the children of civil servants Javanese priyayi and professionals, education was the key to social mobility.

Yet the problem appears to lie in attributing a single label to a very diverse practice of text and discourse analysis and expecting uniformity see also Mahasiwwa By there were 87 Islamic theological colleges and registered private universities Hardjasoemantri Language, in this view, has three functions: The concept of keywords is by no means limited to linguistic theory. It has not been submitted for qualifications at any other academic institution.